||STAT1 is a member of the Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription family of transcription factors. STAT1 is involved in upregulating genes due to a signal by either type I, type II, or type III interferons. In response to IFN-γ stimulation, STAT1 forms homodimers or heterodimers with STAT3 that bind to the GAS (Interferon-Gamma-Activated Sequence) promoter element; in response to either IFN-α or IFN-β stimulation, STAT1 forms a heterodimer with STAT2 that can bind the ISRE (Interferon-Stimulated Response Element) promoter element. The phosphorylated STATs dimerize and associate with ISGF3G/IRF-9 to form a complex termed ISGF3 transcription factor that enters the nucleus. ISGF3 binds to the IFN stimulated response element (ISRE) to activate the transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG), which drive the cell in an antiviral state. In response to type II IFN (IFN-gamma), STAT1 is tyrosine- and serine-phosphorylated.